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Ralph Lowe Energy Management Program: Evaluating Sources

This guide shows library resources related to energy.

Evaluating Sources

Trying to figure out what is a credible source can be difficult. Use the tools and links on this page to help understand what is reliable, sound information.

The CRAAP Test

Always evaluate your sources (online or in print) for CRAAP :

  • Currency
    • When was the information published? Is it current? Up-to-date?
  • Relevance
    • Does the information relate to your topic? Who is the intended audience?
  • Authority
    • What are the author's credentials? Organizational affiliations? Is the author qualified to write on this topic? 
  • Accuracy
    • Is the information supported by evidence? Can you verify it from another source? Are there typos, spelling, grammatical errors?
  • Purpose
    • Is the information fact, opinion, propaganda? Does the author make his/her intentions/purpose clear?

For more information, check out this PDF document.

This content originally created by the CSU-Chico Library.

Credibility websites

Here are some other websites that have good information on reliability of information:


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Diana Boerner
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