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Citation Styles and Plagiarism: Chicago

Get basic information on the major citation styles, plagiarism guidelines, and info on some of our citation softwares

Chicago Style

These disciplines often use Chicago citation and formatting style:

  • Art History
  • History

These disciplines can use Chicago citation and formatting style: (Please check with you supervising professor for which citation style to use)

  • Theatre
  • Religion
  • Philosophy
  • Music
  • Anthropology

Basic Citation Formats

The following guidelines are recommended in accordance with the Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition. Please ask your professor whether you should use footnotes or endnotes. Your professor is the final authority on preferred citation formatting. According to the Chicago Manual of Style, each citation in your bibliography should be single spaced and use a hanging indent, but double-spaced between citations. For more examples and information on citing a source not listed here, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style



1. James Baldwin and Nat Hentoff, Black Anti-Semitism and Jewish Racism, (New York: R. W. Baron, 1969), 49.


Baldwin, James and Nat Hentoff. Black Anti-Semitism and Jewish Racism. New York: R. W. Baron, 1969.

Article from a database:

For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins


1. Mart van Duijn, "Printing, Public, and Power: Shaping the First Printed Bible in Dutch (1477)," Church History & Religious Culture 93, no. 2 (June 2013): 278,


van Duijn, Mart. "Printing, Public, and Power: Shaping the First Printed Bible in Dutch (1477)." Church History & Religious Culture 93, no. 2 (June 2013): 275-299.

Document or section in a website:

For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, include an access date.


1. Michael Evans, "The History of Print Advertising," eHow, last modified March 17, 2015,


Evans, Michael. "The History of Print Advertising." eHow. Last modified March 17, 2015.

General Guidelines

  • Margins should be set at no less than 1” and no greater than 1.5”. 
  • Typeface should be something readable, such as Times New Roman. 
  • Font size should be no less than 10 pt. (preferably, 12 pt.). 
  • Text should be consistently double-spaced, with the following exceptions: 
    • Block quotations, table titles, and figure captions should be single-spaced. 
      • A prose quotation of five or more lines should be blocked. 
      • A blocked quotation does not get enclosed in quotation marks.  
      • An extra line space should immediately precede and follow a blocked quotation. 
      • Blocked quotations should be indented .5” as a whole. 
  • Notes and bibliographies should be singled-spaced internally; however, leave an extra line space between note and bibliographic entries. 
  • Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1. 
  • Subheadings should be used for longer papers. 
  • Put an extra line space before and after subheadings, and avoid ending them with periods. 

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