We would like to thank Jesse Silva, Librarian for Federal and State Government Information, Political Science, Public Policy and Legal Studies, University of California, Berkeley, and Kelly L. Smith, Librarian for U.S. and San Diego Government Information, and Urban Studies & Planning, University of California, San Diego for allowing us to use their timeline of LGBTQIA+ milestones in our Federal Government.
2020 Bostock v. Clayton County, Georgia (2020, June 15)
Supreme Court ruled that 1964 Civil Rights Act barring sex discrimination in the workplace protects LGBTQ employees from being fired because of their sexual orientation.
2018 Masterpiece Cakeshop, LTD v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission (2018, June 4)
Supreme Court ruled in favor of a baker who refused to bake a wedding cake for a same sex couple because of a religious objection.
2018 Federal Register notice on NCVS Survey (2018, April 11)
Department of Justice proposes to stop asking 16- and 17-year-olds to disclose sexual orientation and gender identity on the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS).
2018 Lesbian and Bisexual Health Fact Sheet removed from HHS website (2018, February)
The resource was also removed from a list on the Office on Women's Health (OWH) fact sheets page. A pdf file with similar content is live as of June 2018 but is not linked from the OWH website, making it generally inaccessible.
2017 Census Bureau Statement on CBAMS Survey (2017, September 28)
Census Bureau planned to remove question about sexual orientation from the Census Barriers, Attitudes and Motivators Survey (CBAMS) survey, which helps gauge why “hard to count” populations don’t respond to the census. Dropped the plan after resistance from Census advisors.
2017 Statement by Secretary of Defense Jim Mattis on Military Service by Transgender Individuals (2017, August 29)
Clarifies that currently-serving transgender personnel can continue serving while DoD develops a study and implementation plan.
2017 Presidential Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security (2017, August 25)
Prohibits transgender individuals from serving in the military.
2017 Census Bureau Director's remarks on Census 2020 Planned Subjects (2017, March 29)
Draft of proposed questions for Census 2020 included questions about sexual orientation and gender identity; a revised draft was issued later the same day, omitting those questions.
2017 Federal Register notice on NSOAAP Survey (2017, March 13)
Department of Health and Human Services notice seeking comments on data collection for the National Survey of Older Americans Act Participants. Notice indicates there are no changes to previous survey, but the new draft excludes question about sexual orientation and gender identity asked in previous three years. Sexual orientation question eventually restored; gender identity question was not.
2017 Dear Colleague Letter on the Withdrawal of Title IX Guidance (2017, February 22)
Withdrew guidance to schools outlined in the 2016 Dear Colleague Letter on Transgender Students.
2017 Apology for Lavender Scare (2017, January 9)
Secretary of State John Kerry issues formal apology for the Cold War-era persecution of gay State Department and Foreign Service officers.
Springate, Megan E. (Ed.). LGBTQ America: A Theme Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer History. Washington, D.C.: National Park Foundation, 2016.
2016 Presidential Proclamation -- Establishment of the Stonewall National Monument. (2016, June 24).
2016 Dear Colleague Letter on Transgender Students. (2016, May 13).
2015 Legislative Responses to Recognition of Same-Sex Marriage Address Potential Religious Implications, CRS Legal Sidebar (file courtesy of ProQuest)
Congressional Research Service. CRS-2015-AML-0417, October 29, 2015.
Summarizes The First Amendment Defense Act ("to prohibit the Federal Government from taking any discriminatory action against individuals or entities based on their religious or moral objection to same-sex marriage or extramarital sexual relationships") and the Equality Act ("to amend Federal civil rights laws to prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex, gender identity, and sexual orientation")
2015 Obergefell Et Al. v. Hodges, Director, Ohio Department of Health, Et Al., 576 U. S. 2 ___ (2015)
Fundamental right to marriage for same-sex couples
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Fact Sheet: Recent EEOC Litigation Regarding Title VII & LGBT-Related Discrimination (2016, July 8)
2013 United States v. Windsor, 570 U. S. 2 ___ (2013)
Struck down Defense of Marriage Act
Essays by service members, published by the Marine Corp University Press.
Memorandum on International Initiatives To Advance the Human Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Persons. (December 6, 2011.). Public Papers of the Presidents: Barack Obama (Book 2 ), p. 1524.
U.S. House. Committee on Small Business. Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. H.R. 2965. 111th Congress, 2nd Session.
U.S. Senate. Committee on Armed Services.The Report of the Department of Defense Working Group That Conducted a Comprehensive Review of the Issues Associated with a Repeal of Section 654 of Title 10, U.S.C., "Policy Concerning Homosexuality in the Armed Forces". S. Hrg. 111-899. 111th Congress, 2nd Session.
Proclamation 8387 - Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2009. (June 1, 2009.) Public Papers of the Presidents: Barack Obama.
Public Law 111-84 [H.R. 2647], October 28, 2009
Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act attached
U.S. Senate. Select Committee on Ethics. Public Letter of Admonition. (February 13, 2008).
2003 Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U. S. 558 (2003)
Struck down sodomy laws
2000 Boy Scouts of America v. Dale, 530 U. S. 640 (2000)
Held that right to free association allows organization to exclude LGBT
Proclamation 7203 – Gay and Lesbian Pride Month, 1999. (June 11, 1999). Public Papers of the Presidents: William J. Clinton, p. 1089.
1996 Romer v. Evans, 517 U. S. 620 (1996)
Struck down Colorado Amendment 2 and set the stage for Lawrence v. Texas and later cases
Public Law 104-199 [H.R. 3396], September 21, 1996
Defined marriage as between one woman/one man and allowed states to not recognize same-sex marriages from other states
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 103rd Congress, Second Session. Vol. 140 pt. 12. July 25, 1994, p. 17792.
1994 Sexual Orientation Discrimination in Employment: Legislation and Issues in the 103rd Congress (file courtesy of ProQuest)
First of a series of CRS reports discussing the proposed Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA)
U. S. Department of Defense. (1993, December 21). Department of Defense Directive 1304.26.
Implements Don't Ask, Don't Tell via Section E1.2.8 - Provisions Related to Homosexual Conduct
Exchange with Reporters Aboard Air Force One. (June 6, 1991). Public Papers of the Presidents: George H.W. Bush (Book 1), p. 618.
101 P.L. 649; 104 Stat. 4978; 1990 Enacted S. 358; 101 Enacted S. 358, November 29, 1990
Removed homosexuality as grounds for exclusion from immigration to the U.S.
U. S. Census Bureau. (2013, August). Frequently Asked Questions About Same -Sex Couple Households.
101 P.L. 336; 104 Stat. 327; 1990 Enacted S. 933; 101 Enacted S. 933, July 26, 1990
Specified that the term "disabled" or "disability" shall not apply to transvestites.
U.S. House. Committee on Standards of Conduct. In the Matter of Representative Barney Frank. H. rpt. 101-610. 101st Congress, Second Session.
Frank was outed during investigation into affair with a male prostitute
1989 Rep. William Dannemeyer publishes anti-gay book, Shadow in the Land: Homosexuality in America, followed by a Congressional speech on sodomy in 1990
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 101st Congress, Second Session. Extension of Remarks. March 1, 1990, p.E482.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control. Understanding AIDS: A Message from the Surgeon General.
Bauerlein, M. and Granthan, E. (Eds.). National Endowment for the Arts: A History, 1965-2008. Washington, D.C.: National Endowment for the Arts, 2009.
Example of the NEH culture/funding wars of the 1980s-1990s
Remarks at the American Foundation for AIDS Research Awards Dinner, May 31, 1987. Public Papers of the Presidents: Ronald Reagan (1987, Book 1).
1986 Bowers v. Hardwick, 478 U. S. 186 (1986)
Upheld constitutionality of sodomy laws
U.S. House. Committee on Standards of Conduct. In the Matter of Representative Gerry E. Studds. H. rpt. 98-295. 98th Congress, First Session.
Studds was outed during investigation into the Congressional page scandal
U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2016). A Timeline of HIV/AIDS.
Equal Rights Amendment Remarks at a White House Briefing, May 15, 1980. Public Papers of the Presidents: Jimmy Carter (1980, Book 1), p. 921.
Sacramento, CA - Remarks at a “Get Out the Vote” Rally, Nov. 3, 1978. Public Papers of the Presidents: Jimmy Carter (1978, Book 2), p. 1949.
The failed Proposition 6 would have banned gays and lesbians from working in California's public schools.
Remarks and a Question-and-Answer Session at a Republican Party Reception in San Antonio, April 9, 1976. Public Papers of the Presidents: Gerald R. Ford (1976, Book 2), p. 1031.
1975 "Civil Rights Amendments of 1975" introduced by Rep. Bella Abzug (file courtesy of ProQuest)
1975 H.R. 166; 94 H.R. 166, introduced January 14, 1975
To prohibit discrimination on the basis of affectional or sexual preference, and for other purposes
Special Message to the Congress on Crime, June 19, 1975. Public Papers of the Presidents: Gerald R. Ford (1975, Book 1).
1975 Pros and Cons of Legalizing Victimless Crimes (file courtesy of ProQuest)
Congressional Research Service. CRS-1975-EPW-0055, June 10,1975.
Presents pro and con arguments for legalizing or decriminalizing certain victimless crimes, including consensual adult homosexuality
1974 Equality Act of 1974 (file courtesy of ProQuest)
U.S. House. H.R. 14752. 93rd Congress, Second Session. Introduced May 14, 1974.
To prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex, marital status, and sexual orientation, and for other purposes
1969 Norton v. Macy, 417 F.2d 1161 (D.C. Cir. 1969)
Held that civil servant can not be fired solely on basis of homosexuality
1967 Loving v. Virginia, 388 U. S. 1 (1967)
Invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage
Boutilier v. INS, 387 U.S. 118 (1967)
A Quantity of Copies of Books v. Kansas, 388 U.S. 452 (1967) (per curiam)
1962 Manual Enterprises, Inc. v. Day, 370 U.S. 478 (1962)
Held that magazines consisting of photographs of nude male models are not obscene
Petition for Writ of Certiorari - Number 676 - Kameny v. Brucker. In Records of the Supreme Court of the United States, 1772-2007.
1958 One, Incorporated v. Olesen, 355 U. S. 371 (1958) (per curiam)
First SCOTUS case dealing with homosexuality; held for right to free speech
1954 Investigation of Communist Activities in the State of California (part 6 not available)
U.S. House. Investigation of Communist Activities in the State of California. Part 6: Hearing Before the Committee on Un-American Activities. 83rd Congress, Second Session, April 20, 1954.
18 FR 2489, 3 CFR, 1949-1953 Comp., p. 936
First inclusion of “sexual perversion” as basis for removal from federal employment
Sweeney v. Woodall, 344 U. S. 86 (1952)
1951 Rosenberg Espionage Case Prosecution, and Sundry Atomic Energy Matters (file courtesy of ProQuest)
U.S. Congress. Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. Executive Session. Secret. JCAE document number CCLXXXVIII (Unpublished hearing), February 8, 1951.
Employment termination of Oak Ridge National Laboratory personnel director due to homosexual conduct
U.S. Senate. S.Doc. 241. 81st Congress, 2nd Session, 1950.
1950 Employment of Moral Perverts by Government Agencies (McClellan Report) (file courtesy of ProQuest)
U.S. Senate. Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments. S. rpt. 1746. 81st Congress, Second Session, 1950.
the U.S. Government (file courtesy of ProQuest)
U.S. Senate. Committee on Appropriations for the District of Columbia. S. print 4179. 81st Congress, Second Session, 1950.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 79th Congress, First Session. Vol. 91 pt. 10. February 20, 1945, p. A741.
Cain v. Universal Pictures Co., Inc., 47 F. Supp. 1013 (S.D. Cal. 1942)
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 69th Congress, Second Session. Vol. 68 pt. 3. February 8, 1927, p. 3267.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 69th Congress, Second Session. Vol. 68 pt. 2. January 19, 1927, p. 1943.
U.S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Immigration. Immigration Laws (Act of February 5, 1917): Rules of May 1, 1917. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1917.
Used to exclude homosexuals from immigration to U.S. based on their status as “persons of constitutional psychopathic inferiority”
Discussion of We'Wha, a Zuni man who dressed and lived as a woman in her tribe.
U.S. Department of State. Pan-American Medical Congress. Transactions of the first Pan-American Medical Congress, held in the City of Washington, D. C., U. S. A., September 5, 6, 7, and 8, A. D. 1893. Serial Set 3162-2 S.exdoc.36. 53rd Congress, 2nd Session.
Native American words for "sodomy"
U.S. Department of the Interior. Census Office. [Census Reports] Tenth Census, v. 21 (June 1, 1880). 1988.
Prisoners for buggery, sodomy, etc by state
Committee to Investigate Chinese Immigration, Special. Joint. Report of the Joint Special Committee to Investigate Chinese Immigration. Serial Set 1734 S.rp.689. 44th Congress, 2nd session.
Racism and sodomy
1873 Comstock Law
17 Stat. 598
Suppression of trade in and circulation of obscene material
(file courtesy of ProQuest)
S.exdoc.69. 30th Congress, first session
Sodomy conviction and punishment in the Navy
U.S. House of Representatives. Serial Set 420, Session 3, H.Doc. 72. 27th Congress, Third Session. January 19, 1843.
Sodomy and buggery laws
U.S. House. Committee on the District of Columbia. Laws for the District of Columbia. Serial Set 200, H.rpt.269. 21st Congress, 1st session.
Sodomy and buggery laws