Step 1 in the process is simple:
1. Find a topic that interests you
2. Build a PICO (see boxes below) that will support that topic
3. Then deconstruct that PICO so that you can establish keywords that relate to your topic, and then utilize a concept map (see example below) to ensure you have all concepts and synonyms available to search
What is PICO(T)?
Population – This is a specific reference to a population and their characteristics. Inclusion or exclusion should be based on a clear, scientific justification rather than based on biased reasoning.
Intervention – The intervention should be described in detail, if possible. Think about the comparator while defining the intervention.
Comparison – Is the alternative form of treatment or care that will be compared to the intervention.
Outcome – Is the desired effect or outcome from using the intervention or the comparison.
Time – The time it takes to demonstrate an outcome (Only use if necessary)
For more information on PICO look at this site Cochrane Tutorial on PICO.
1. Write a Clinical Scenario.
You have just seen Lydia, who recently delivered a healthy baby. She plans to breastfeed, but also wants to start oral contraception. You generally prefer to prescribe combination oral contraceptives (estrogen + progesterone) but you have been told that these might more negatively affect her breast milk production than progesterone only pills.
2. Deconstruct the Scenario into PICO format:
Population Intervention Comparator Outcome
Breastfeeding Combined Progesterone Maternal satisfaction
Mom desiring Contraceptives Only with infant satiety or
Contraception (Progesterone Contraception milk flow
3. A good place to start your search is the databases available through library website: http://lib.tcu.edu
What are some databases you can look in, what are some of the search terms you can use, and what are some of the limits that can be used to search? (List at least 4)
Example of limits: Date limits, Full Text Only, Scholarly (Peer Reviewed) Journals
Databases Search Terms Limits
ProQuest Breastfeeding NOT Cancer
Nursing Collection II Oral Contraceptive* Peer Reviewed
Medline Estrogen (SU) Subject: breastfeeding
Academic Search Progesterone Date Range: Last 5 years