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History Major Seminar: Spain: Find Primary Sources

Research guide for students taking Dr. Jodi Campbell's History Major Seminar with a focus on Spain.

Finding Primary Sources in the Library Catalog

When you are searching for primary sources in the library catalog, there are a few subject terms you can use to find them. Here's what you do. Change the drop-down option box to "Subject Words." Then type in "sources." Other subject terms to try include:

  • personal narratives
  • diaries
  • letters
  • photographs

Use these terms along with the other subjects you are studying.

Other kinds of primary sources include newspapers, magazines, or documents that were produced at the time you are studying. 

What are Primary Sources?

Historians (for the most part) try to understand the context of events– what REALLY happened? In order to understand the context, they look at primary sources.

Primary sources are any items that were produced at the time of an event. They are original sources. They tell us what people at the time were doing, thinking, and feeling. These kinds of sources may include pamphlets, newspaper articles, letters, diaries, art, photos, speeches, recordings, court documents, or anything else that was produced during the time you are studying. Historians use these items to interpret the history and create theories for why things happened the way they did.

Secondary sources are the interpretations of history that use primary sources as evidence to support various theories. These often come in the form of history books, essays, commentaries, journal articles, newspaper articles, documentaries, or other kinds of items that use the primary sources as evidence for their interpretations.

So how can you tell which is which? Here’s a few ways to figure it out:

  • Check the date: Was the item produced in the time period you are studying?
  • Evaluate the author/creator: Who created the item? Did he or she live during the time period you are studying?

If you can answer “yes” to these questions, you are probably using a primary source.

Secondary sources might be a bit easier to identify:

  • Does the item have a bibliography?
  • Does it seem more interpretive rather than an original creation?
  • Evaluate the author/creator: Who created the item? Who is the primary audience?

If you find a bibliography, reference list, footnotes or endnotes, your document is probably a secondary source. If the item seems to be an interpretation of history, rather than an eye-witness account, then it is probably a secondary source.

Of course, if you have a question about whether an item is a primary or secondary source, ask your professor or a librarian.

Primary Source Collections: Books

Primary Sources: Databases Best Bets

Times Digital Archive

London's most significant newspaper. Coverage dates: 1785 - six years ago

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British Periodicals

Magazines and journal articles from Great Britain. Coverage dates: 1681 - 1920.

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Access World News

Contains more recent local, state, national, and international newspaper articles. Coverage dates: Early 20th century - Current.

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HathiTrust

This digital collection includes books and primary source documents from a variety of sources, including Google, the Internet Archive, and libraries around the world.

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Primary Sources

General History Primary Sources

European History Collections

18th Century (1700s)

19th Century (1800s)

Newspaper Collections

Newspapers by Title

Magazine Collections

What are primary sources? (video)