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Comparative Race and Ethnic Studies: Cite Sources

Why bother with citations?: Avoiding plagiarism

Plagiarism is presenting the words or ideas of someone else as your own without proper acknowledgment of the source.

If you don't credit the author, you are committing a type of theft called plagiarism.

When you work on a research paper you will probably find supporting material for your paper from works by others. It's okay to use the ideas of other people, but you do need to correctly credit them. When you quote people -- or even when you summarize or paraphrase information found in books, articles or Web pages -- you must acknowledge the original author.

It IS plagiarism when you...

  1. Buy or use a term paper written by someone else.
  2. Cut and paste passages from the Web, a book or an article and insert them into your paper without citing them. Warning! It is now easy to search and find passages that have been copied from the Web.
  3. Use the words or ideas of another person without citing them.
  4. Paraphrase that person's words without citing them.

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Subject Guide

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Robyn Reid
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Librarian for: Anthropology, Criminal Justice, Communication Studies, Education, Geography, History, Military Science, Political Science

Citation Sources

Chicago 17 Quick Citing Guide

Basic Citation Formats

The following guidelines are recommended in accordance with the Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition. Please ask your professor whether you should use footnotes or endnotes. Your professor is the final authority on preferred citation formatting. According to the Chicago Manual of Style, each citation in your bibliography should be single spaced and use a hanging indent, but double-spaced between citations. For more examples and information on citing a source not listed here, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style



1. James Baldwin and Nat Hentoff, Black Anti-Semitism and Jewish Racism, (New York: R. W. Baron, 1969), 49.


Baldwin, James and Nat Hentoff. Black Anti-Semitism and Jewish Racism. New York: R. W. Baron, 1969.

Article from a database:

For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins


1. Mart van Duijn, "Printing, Public, and Power: Shaping the First Printed Bible in Dutch (1477)," Church History & Religious Culture 93, no. 2 (June 2013): 278,


van Duijn, Mart. "Printing, Public, and Power: Shaping the First Printed Bible in Dutch (1477)." Church History & Religious Culture 93, no. 2 (June 2013): 275-299.

Document or section in a website:

For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, include an access date.


1. Michael Evans, "The History of Print Advertising," eHow, last modified March 17, 2015,


Evans, Michael. "The History of Print Advertising." eHow. Last modified March 17, 2015.


Citing Images

Chicago 17 Image Citation Style - Bibliography Page


Last name, First name. Title of Work. Date of creation or completion. Medium. Name of Institution. Location (if applicable). URL.


Ferrara, Daniel. The Flock. 1970. Painting, 25.5x32in.


Please see the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition for further guidance.